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The fascination of the solar system

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Every morning from my house I witness a surprising but beautiful scientific process, when the earth rotates on its axis at a certain time and brings this region in front of the sun. The sun fills it with light, electromagnetic energy. This is the light, whose journey starts from the electrons of the countless atoms on the surface of the Sun, the smallest particles of matter called electrons, the most powerful and energy-generating process of fusion in the Sun. ) absorb energy from (more or less the same process i.e. fusion, in which two hydrogen atoms combine to form helium and release destructive energy, used in hydrogen bombs) by absorbing this energy into other atoms The electrons go into an excited state and then when they return to energy shells in pre-determined energy orbits around their respective nuclei, the energy of the sun is released from them. When this light reaches the leaves of the trees, they In the layers of specific cells of mesophyll cells, electrons are obtained from this energy by certain proteins (which are actually automatic, very small machines and these are called photo systems). Water molecules are broken. All this process is very surprising.

The energy from these electrons is then used to combine carbon dioxide molecules to form simple carbohydrates such as glues. As if the electromagnetic energy that was released from the electrons of the atoms on the surface of the sun. Some of it comes to the ground and gets stored in these food molecules like glucose and starch etc. It is actually the chemical form of the same energy that causes growth and development of all living things in an environment.

These organisms include animals such as snails, turtles, snakes, birds such as the woodpecker, eagles, deer and numerous insects. You must have seen such a sight, but to delve deeper and enjoy it in a way that makes you devoted, scientific knowledge is a good friend. Scope has drawn.

This telescope in the American state of Hawaii started its work at the end of August last year and in this regard, 2 images of the Sun were released. It has been described as the world’s most powerful solar telescope capable of observing the sun at extreme depths. One of these images shows the atmosphere on the Sun’s surface called the chromosphere. This image covers an area of ​​51,000 miles. Sethuraman Panchanathan, director of the National Science Foundation, which is funding the telescope, says the telescope will give us a chance to learn a lot about our star.

An ex-astronaut of the American space agency NASA has confirmed that the color of the sun is actually not yellow, but white. Former American astronaut Scott Kelly confirmed the reality of space, according to him, the Sun is actually white, but due to the Earth’s atmosphere, it appears yellow. So once one gets out of our planet’s atmosphere, the sun appears white. According to NASA, Earth’s atmosphere scatters more blue light than red, a slight decrease in blue light means the human eye perceives the sun as yellow.

In addition, all x-rays and gamma rays are filtered before they reach us on Earth, and as sunlight passes through different layers of the atmosphere, more blue light is emitted and then more red light reaches our eyes. arrives This is why the sun and even the sky appear red at sunset. The sun also rotates on its axis from west to east, this spin motion of the sun is much slower than that of the earth and completes one cycle in an average of 27 days. The rotation of the sun was first discovered by observing sunspots, these spots on the sun that are constantly changing their position.

The Sun rotates at 7.25 degrees (relative to Earth’s orbit) and we see the Sun’s North Pole in September and South Pole in March. As the Sun is a ball of gas/plasma, its motion is different from that of solid planets or objects. The polar regions of the Sun generally rotate slowly and complete one cycle in more than 30 days, while the equatorial regions complete one cycle in 25 (Earth) days. There is even a sun in our universe so cold that if you stand on its surface, it will feel as cold as the freezing winter night on the hills of Swat, Kalam.

The name of this icy sun is W0855. It is about 7 light years away from our Earth. About eight hundred times larger than our Earth, this cold sun has many names; Inferior gray Sun, Planetary Sun, Failed Sun, but better known as Cool Sun, as its surface temperature is about minus 13 degrees Celsius. The fusion interactions at its core are too small to heat up its core and cause it to burst into flames, but it is still a full sun. Scientists believe that this cold sun may have water and possibly life.

NASA astronomer, David Carbino, claimed that there is a planet in the universe that is made entirely of water. NASA experts have named it GJ 1214B. It is very clear water and there is not a single piece of rock or stone on it. That is, water is water. It is also called Ocean planet and is located 40 light years away from Earth. (The distance that light travels in one year is called a light year). The gravity of this planet is 8.924 meters per second.

While its density is 1.87m/cm3 and it is four times larger than Earth. That means it can hold four lands. Its rotation speed is many times faster than that of the Earth. But due to gravity, not even a single drop comes out and the most interesting and surprising thing is that NASA technology cannot land on this planet, because one thing is that it is far away and another thing is That it is difficult to land due to water on it.

Our solar system was formed about 4.571 billion years ago and our earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago and the asteroid shower occurred 3.9 billion years ago. It is called Lunar Catalysis. And at the same time, comets from the Kuiper belt also came to earth, due to which water came to our earth. About 3.9 billion years ago, the two giant planets of our solar system, Saturn and Jupiter, came very close to each other, causing them to repel each other, affecting the entire solar system and the two planets Neptune and Uranus. Orbits also changed and asteroids began to fall towards the inner planets, including Mars, Venus, Mercury and our Earth.

When NASA examined the asteroid, it was found that the asteroid is made of many minerals, elements and water molecules, but this water is not as much as on our earth, so where did the rest of the water come from? The research made it clear that the rest of the water came from the Kuper Belt, which contains comments that formed from gases and water but in the form of ice, and also during the same event when Jupiter and Saturn collided. When they came close to each other, they also came towards the earth and transferred their water to the earth, at that time the temperature of the earth was 2000 degrees Celsius, then a series of rains started, due to which the earth began to cool. happened

How does Earth look from space? Visitors say it looks like a beautiful blue marble. The white color in the marble from this round is of the clouds that are flying layer by layer in the atmosphere and the blue color of the oceans is the deep connection between the oceans and the clouds. When sunlight falls on this planet, the heat here causes vapors to rise from the oceans, which take the form of clouds in the upper atmosphere. These clouds rain in distant areas. In the fields, in the fields, in the deserts, on the mountains.

Clouds turn into snow on the mountains. Mountains have been storing the water of the seas for centuries in the form of glaciers. When this snow melts, it makes its way into the mountains and irrigates the rivers. The rivers flow and meet again in the sea. Thus the water goes to where it rises from. This process has been going on for billions of years on earth, but when did the first rain fall on earth? No one has been able to answer this question yet. Probably for billions of years.

Today, the water that rains from the sky, the water that we drink, the water that flows in streams, canals and rivers? And the water that rises in the form of waves in the oceans. Where on earth did it come from? This question is as important as knowing how life originated on Earth. Because water is essential for life. Water is an essential element of life. We even look for water on other planets so that if found, life might be there. Life on Earth originated in watery oceans 3.8 billion years ago.

Where did water come from in the solar system? We know that the solar system formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago. A nebula is actually a collection of dust and gas scattered in space by the exploding stars that have reached their end in the past, which over time bind together under the influence of gravity to give birth to stars and planets. So it is as if the water in this nebula was formed by the chemical fusion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide containing oxygen molecules. In the process of formation of the solar system, many large pieces of ice must have formed like this, but how can we say this?

So that today we see that there are many such icy asteroids in the solar system. Most of them still exist in the region between Mars and Jupiter. And many comets orbit the Sun in long orbits. Many scientists believe that many such icy asteroids hit the Earth in the past, when the Earth was still forming and became part of it. Later, the water collected by volcanic eruptions came to the surface of the Earth, but another idea is that the icy rocks were already part of the Earth during the formation process, which later came to the surface and re-evaporated. Keep cooling the ground by going to the surface.

A third idea is that water already existed on Earth and came from falling asteroids. Whatever the reason, one thing is certain that the water that you and I drink and use today is older than the age of the earth ie 4.5 billion years. Today we know that water is found in many places in the solar system. Like at the south pole of Mars or in the rocks of the moon or in the oceans under the icy layer of Jupiter’s moon Europa. Rain also occurs on other planets, but not water. Venus, the second planet in the solar system, rains sulfuric acid on it. Similarly, scientists believe that diamonds rain on Neptune and Uranus, but does any other planet in this universe rain water like Earth?

110 light-years from Earth, astronomers have found an Earth-like planet, a rocky planet, after examining data from NASA’s Kepler telescope in space. That is, a planet that also has a solid surface, not a gas giant such as Jupiter or Neptune, which are made entirely of gas and have no solid surface. The planet, named K2-18b, orbits its star just as Earth orbits the Sun. The light from its star falling on this planet is more or less the same as the light from the sun on Earth.

The atmosphere of this planet has been examined by sensitive scientific instruments such as spectrometers and it has been found that there is water vapour. Scientists believe that these vapors are actually clouds of water that possibly rain on the planet. Just like water rains on our earth. If so, then it is possible that there is life here. Billions of years from now, our universe will meet its end, all the stars will fade and stop twinkling, the universe will become infinitely vast and infinitely cold. The laws of physics guarantee that all intelligent beings will perish at that time.

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