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A Chronological List of Kashmir’s Kings (3450 BCE – 14th Century CE)

HistoryA Chronological List of Kashmir's Kings (3450 BCE - 14th Century CE)

The history of Kashmir is a rich tapestry woven with the threads of dynastic rule, cultural exchange, and geopolitical shifts. From the ancient rulers mentioned in Rajatarangini to the modern era of colonialism and princely states, Kashmir has witnessed a kaleidoscope of influences that have shaped its identity over millennia. Let us embark on a journey through time, exploring the reigns of kings and the evolution of Kashmiri society.

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Ancient Dynasties Of Kashmir

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE)
Gonanda I3238-3188
Damodara I3188-3140
Yasovati3140-3139½
Gonanada II3139½-3083
Parikshit3083-3041

Pandava Dynasty Kings List

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE)
Harnadeva
Rama deva
Vyasadeva
Drunadeva
Simhadeva

Gonanda Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE)
Lava1752-1713
Kusa or Kusesaya1713-1674
Khagendra1674-1635
Surendra1635-1596
Godhara1596-1557

Pratapaditya Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE)
Pratapaditya272-240
Jalaukasa240-208
Tunjina208-172
Vijaya172-164
Jayendra164-127

Lohar Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE/CE)
Meghavahana80-46
Pravarasena46-16
Hiranya16-14 CE
Matrigupta14-19 CE
Pravarasena II19-79 CE

Karkota Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Durlabha vardhana252-288
Durlabhaka288-338
Chandrapeeda338-397
Tarapida397-431
Lalitaditya431-467

Utpala Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Avantivarma852-880
Sankaravarma880-900
Gopalavarma900-902
Suravarma902-904
Partha904-918

Gonanda Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE)
Suvarna1557-1518
Janaka1518-1479
Sachinara1479-1447
Asoka or Dharmasoka1448-1400
Jaelauka1400-1344

Lohar Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (BCE/CE)
Yudhistira II79-118
Lakshmana (Narendraditya)118-131
Tunjina or Ranaditya131-173
Vikramaditya173-215
Baladitya215-252

Karkota Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Kuvalayaditya467-468
Vajraditya or Bapyayika or Lalitapida468-525
Prithivyapida525-569
Sangramapida569 CE (ruled only for 7 days)
Jayapida (Pandit and poet)569-620

Utpala Dynasty

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Nirjitavarma918-920
Chakravarma920-934
Unmattavanti934-936
Yasaskara936-945½
Varnata1 month

Gupta Brahmin Kings

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Sangramadeva5 months
Parvagupta946-948
Kshemagupta948-957
Abhimanyugupta957-971
Nandigupta971-972

Agni Vamsa/Brahma-Kshatra

Kings of KashmirReign (CE)
Uchchlafew days
Sankaraja1110-1120
Sussala1120-1128
Jayasimha1128-1148

These rulers, often intertwined with myth and legend, set the stage for the emergence of a distinct Kashmiri identity. Notable among them is Gonanda I, who, according to historical accounts, had ties with the Magadha ruler Jarasandha and met his demise at the hands of Balarama, elder brother of Krishna.

Dynastic Shifts and Foreign Intrigues

As centuries passed, Kashmir witnessed the rise and fall of various dynasties, including the Lohar, Agni Vamsa, and Gupta Brahmin kings. These periods were marked by both internal strife and external incursions, with foreign invaders like Zulju and Rinchana leaving lasting imprints on Kashmir’s history.

The Lohar dynasty, for instance, paved the way for foreign invasions, leading to a gradual transformation of Kashmiri society. The conversion of Rinchana to Islam under the influence of his minister Shah Mir heralded a new era of religious and cultural dynamics in the region.

Colonialism and Princely States: Modern Challenges

In the colonial era, Kashmir came under the rule of Mughals, Afghan rulers, and Sikhs before becoming a princely state under Dogra rule. This period witnessed a complex interplay of power dynamics, with Kashmir’s fate often entangled in the broader geopolitics of the Indian subcontinent.

Between 1846 and 1947, the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, under Dogra rule, faced numerous challenges, including political unrest and social upheaval. The partition of British India in 1947 further exacerbated tensions, ultimately leading to the Kashmir conflict that persists to this day.

Conclusion: Weaving the Threads of History

From ancient legends to modern geopolitics, the history of Kashmir is a saga of resilience, adaptability, and cultural richness. The reigns of kings, the ebb and flow of dynasties, and the encounters with foreign powers have all contributed to shaping Kashmir’s multifaceted identity.

As we reflect on Kashmir’s past, we recognize the importance of understanding its complex history in navigating the challenges of the present. Through scholarly inquiry and a commitment to dialogue and reconciliation, we can honor the legacies of the past while striving for a peaceful and prosperous future for the people of Kashmir.

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